• paired reading
    Fluency Activities
    Echo Reading – This is a form of modeling oral reading in which the experienced reader reads a line of a story and the student echoes by reading the same line, trying to imitate the intonation and phrasing.
    Impress Method – This method utilizes unison oral reading between the experienced reader and the student.  The two readers sit next to each other, with the experienced reader reading out loud slightly louder and ahead of the student, modeling fluent and expressive oral reading.  The experienced reader points to the text as he reads, and the student follows along. Over time, the student may take the lead and the teacher only reads a difficult word when needed.
    Paired Reading - The student and the experienced reader select a text that is interesting and short in length.  Before beginning to read, they decide on a signal for the student to give when he feels he is ready to read on his own, and a different one for when he needs help.  The experienced reader and the student read the text at the same time.  The experienced reader sets a pace that is appropriate, modeling intonation and phrasing.  The experienced reader can move their finger along the line of print if necessary.  When the student feels ready, he signals the experienced reader to stop reading aloud.  The student continues to read on his own.
    Readers Theater – Students often enjoy reading from a play script.  Practicing for the performance gives them an opportunity to read the text repeatedly while focusing on intonation and expression of the character.
    Repeated Readings – The repeated reading technique is the oral rereading of a selected passage until accuracy and speed are fluent.  Students must be able to read the selection with some degree of accuracy at the beginning of instruction.  Text at the student's independent level work best for this technique. The student may be timed and the information recorded on a graph to show the growth in fluency.
    Talking Books – This uses tape-recorded readings of selected stories to increase reading fluency and word recognition.  The student repeatedly reads along with a tape until he can read the text fluently with comprehension.  (The public library has many books on tape.) 
    Information obtained from: Techniques for Instruction and Assessment - Diagnostic Teaching of Reading, Barbara J. Walker, Prentice-Hall 2000